Animal HealthDiseasesFoot and Mouth DiseaseEpidemiology

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Epidemiology

The incidence and distribution in Montana and elsewhere, along with the information regarding the spread of the disease.


How FMD spreads

FMD viruses can be spread by animals, people, or materials that bring the virus into physical contact with susceptible animals. An outbreak can occur when:

  • People wearing contaminated clothes or footwear or using contaminated equipment pass the virus to susceptible animals.
  • Animals carrying the virus are introduced into susceptible herds.
  • Contaminated facilities are used to hold susceptible animals.
  • Raw or improperly cooked garbage containing infected meat or animal products is fed to susceptible animals.
  • Susceptible animals are exposed to materials such as hay, feedstuffs, hides or biologics contaminated with the virus.
  • Susceptible animals drink common source contaminated water.
    A susceptible cow is inseminated by semen from an infected bull.