Animal HealthDiseasesExotic Newcastle DiseaseEpidemiology

Exotic Newcastle Disease Epidemiology

The incidence and distribution in Montana and elsewhere, along with the information regarding the spread of the disease.


Incidence:
There are no longer any areas in the United States that are quarantined because of Exotic Newcastle Disease (END). To find the latest information regarding surveillance in the United States, click here.

Transmission:
END is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and the bodily discharges of infected birds. The disease is transmitted through infected birds’ droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes.

  • Direct Contact (bird to bird) - The disease spreads rapidly among birds kept in confinement, such as commercially raised chickens. END is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and the bodily discharges of infected birds.The disease is transmitted through infected birds’ droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes. The disease is transmitted through infected birds’ droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes.
  • Mechanical Means - High concentrations of the exotic Newcastle virus are in birds’ bodily discharges; therefore, the disease can be spread easily by mechanical means. Contaminated feeding and watering equipment. Virus-bearing material can be picked up on shoes and clothing and carried from an infected flock to a healthy one. The disease is often spread by vaccination and debeaking crews, manure haulers, rendering-truck drivers, feed- delivery personnel, poultry buyers, egg service people, and poultry farm owners and employees.

Smuggled pet birds, especially Amazon parrots from Latin America, pose a great risk of introducing END into U.S. poultry flocks. Amazon parrots that are carriers of the disease but do not show symptoms are capable of shedding exotic Newcastle virus for at least 400 days.

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Contact Information

Department of Livestock
Animal Health Bureau
PO Box 202001
Helena, MT 59620-2001
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